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Procs Per Minute (PPM) Information Guide by Bopper Written: 9 August 2019 Last updated: 16 August 2019 (Information that might help new players in understanding the PPM game mechanics) Update (9 August 2019) This thread has adapted quite a bit since I first put the call out for Testers to determine how the PPM mechanics actually work and to clear up the confusion from outdated resources (love you Paragon Wiki, but you're i23, and we've moved on). Since then a lot of good information was discovered and plenty of mechanics have been confirmed. Now that I have a good understanding of most of the important pieces, I wanted to change the format of this post. I will still keep the Formulas that have been vetted at the top, that way people can see the important stuff right away. As for the rest of the post, I will slowly build it up to look more like a Guide (since the Mods moved my post to the Guide Section, might as well try to do them proud). As for building up a guide, that will take time, but I will clean it up and make it nice. For now, I'll try to keep adding sections periodically. PPM Formulas Breakdown of Formulas Single Formulas (for Copy/Paste) Scope The purpose of this guide is to clear up the PPM mechanics that are used in i25+, which incorporated changes made in i24 Beta but never made it to Live. Most of the information in this guide comes from reviewing the original forum posts discussing this topic (Phil “Synapse, circa April of 2012), extensive testing used to confirm the proposals made in the forum discussion, and reviewing source code by the SCoRE team which further confirmed these formulas. The formulas are provided at the top of this guide for easy viewing, and I will update the formulas and this guide when new information is revealed. Background A “Proc” is a procedure that has a chance of happening. Every time you hit a target (self, ally or enemy) with a power slotted with a Proc enhancement, the effect of the Proc has a chance to trigger. For more information on Procs, check out the ParagonWiki article. History (possibly a Drunken History) Honestly, I don’t know the whole history, so I apologize if some of this is wrong. Basically, prior to i21 almost all Proc enhancements worked as a fixed percentage. This allowed for many exploits such as slotting AoE powers with a high tick rate to “buzzsaw” enemies. Then sometime in the i21 timeframe, the game introduced Archetype Origin enhancements (ATOs) which introduced the new Procs Per Minute (PPM) mechanic, which used base recharge, area factor, and cast time to calculate the probability of a proc triggering its effect. Finally, in i23, the original Proc enhancements had their fixed percentage mechanics replaced with PPM. Due to exploits that could be achieved with the PPM mechanics (100% Proc probabilities, increased Proc rates using extremely high recharge builds, etc.), the devs decided to retune the PPM mechanic such that it used global recharge instead of base recharge and cap the probability to Proc at 90% (which was an attempt to preserve the spirit of a Proc always being a random occurrence). There was an obvious outcry as this unfairly punished players who built high-recharge characters and there was no way to predictably control your proc performance when teaming with players who could buff your recharge…which effectively debuffs your Proc performance. After much discussion with players, the devs came to a compromise and decided to only use the enhanced recharge (recharge buffs from enhancements or the Agility/Spiritual Alpha incarnates). The devs also compromised by incorporating a minimum Proc probability of at least 5% and dampened the negative effects of Area Factor so that AoE powers are not too severely punished. This was all incorporated into the i24 Beta when the game abruptly shut down. PPM Mechanics Procs Per Minute (PPM): PPM is roughly the average number of times per minute an effect from a Proc should fire. Each Proc enhancement will list this number in its description info and is used directly in calculating the Proc’s probability to trigger. Modified Recharge Time (MRT): Modified Recharge Time (MRT) is the power’s actual recharge time when no global recharge boosts are present. If you’re not sure what your MRT is, you can check this in the game. Just right-click on the power, select “info”, and see what is listed as the recharge time. This recharge time will incorporate the recharge enhancements and alpha enhancements installed in the power, after enhancement diversification is factored in (again, global recharge boosts will not affect this). Sometimes an example is worth a thousand words, so let’s do a few. Let’s assume we look at a power that has no recharge boosts from enhancements nor alpha incarnates, thus its enhanced recharge is 0%. If we look at the same power slotted with a T4 Agility Alpha and 2 Level 50 Invention-Origin Recharge Enhancements, the enhanced recharge is 114% after enhancement diversification. Let’s look at what the actual recharge time would be and the what the MRT would be if we also incorporate a 100% global recharge (achievable with Hasten and 4 LotGs). Base Recharge Enhanced Recharge Global Recharge Bonus Actual Recharge Time Modified Recharge Time 10 sec 0% 0% 10 sec 10 sec 10 sec 0% 100% 5 sec 10 sec 10 sec 114% 0% 4.67 sec 4.67 sec 10 sec 114% 100% 3.18 sec 4.67 sec As we can see, the global recharge bonus has no effect on the modified recharge time. This also highlights how added recharge has diminishing returns. Notice how going from 0% enhanced recharge to 114% enhanced recharge while already having 100% global recharge only decreased the actual recharge time by 1.82 seconds, yet the MRT decreased by 5.33 seconds. If your build already has managed high global recharge, you might be better off not slotting any recharge enhancements into your Proc powers as your actual recharge time will not decrease by much but your Proc performance can greatly decrease due to the significant decrease in MRT. Activation Period (ActivatePeriod): Activation Period is the time between when the effects of an ENHANCEMENT trigger. Notice the not-so-subtle all-caps there? That's to emphasize the fact that the Activation Period has nothing to do with the power itself (ok, not exactly, but I'll get to that), but rather how the enhancement functions. When an enhancement is slotted, its effects trigger every 10 seconds (this is the ActivatePeriod) and those effects will last a duration of 10.25 seconds. There is some history to this that I don't recall, but I believe Procs used to work off of the Activation Period of the power, which resulted in silly Proc rates when slotted into powers with a high tick rate (Caltrops was cutely referred to as Proc-trops, if I recall correctly). Anyways, a change was made that resulted in powers such as toggles, autos, etc would only have the Procs pulse once every 10 seconds. Apparently this is how they incorporated it, by using the enhancement's activation period. I apologize for my shoddy description there, but my memory is fuzzy and I just recently discovered this functionality. I bring this up with emphasis because I've seen everywhere else folks talking about using the Activation Period of the power for calculating Proc probabilities (I was also guilty of that). Hopefully this clears that up. There is one more thing worth mentioning, which does not impact how we calculate the Proc probability, but does detail something about the PPM mechanics. The Proc can only trigger when the power ticks, but will still be able to trigger once in every 10 second interval. That is a mouthful and not necessarily clear, so let me describe an example that I had tested repeatedly to confirm this mechanic. World of Confusion has an Activate Period of 4 seconds, so when you cast it (assuming a mob is present), World of Confusion will tick at 0 seconds, 4 sec, 8 sec, 12 sec, 16 sec, 20 sec, and so on. Where I highlighted in yellow is when the Procs will be eligible to trigger. Even though the time between the 2nd and 3rd proc is only 8 seconds, they fall into different 10 second intervals (which cover from 0-9.9 secs, 10-19.9 secs, and 20-29.9 secs). I don't know if this is intended behavior, but you can rest assure that when you attempt to calculate your Proc rates with toggles (or the like) you can expect on average one Proc opportunity per 10 seconds. Area Modifier (AreaMod): Area Modifier (AreaMod) is an unofficial term used to help distinguish itself from Area Factor, which is used in the game for things outside of PPM mechanics (such as Design Formulas). Basically, AreaMod is the new Area Factor for PPM calculations, which uses the 0.75 weight to dampen the effects on Proc probabilities (per Synapse's design). This is entirely an i24+ concept. It's worth noting the AreaMod (and the Area Factor that feeds into it) is entirely dependent on the area of effect of the power, and has no dependence on the maximum number of targets the power can hit. Area Factor (AF): Area Factor (AF) is used in the game to discount the impact of Area of Effect (AoE) powers in relation to Single Target (ST) powers. For example, when it comes to power design formulas, the damage for an AoE attack should be equal to an equivalent ST attack's damage divided by the area factor (in this case, equivalent means having the same recharge time). This same concept was incorporated into the original PPM mechanics, however the impact proved to be more detrimental than anticipated; which is why Synapse proposed dampening its effect in i24 (thus creating the new PPM Area Factor...AreaMod). Single Target - AF: The Area Factor of a Single Target attack is always 1. Obviously. It's the thing area attacks are being compared to. Sphere - AF: The Area Factor of a Sphere attack applies to any non-cone AoE. These attacks are centered on a location (self, target, or patch) and can hit any target within its radius. Cone - AF: The Area Factor of a Cone attack is always less than its Sphere counterpart (same radius). This is simply due to the fact a sphere has 360 degree coverage and a cone has less than that, so it gets a discount. For ranged cone powers, the radius is always equal to the base range of the power (enhancing the range of the power will not change the radius of the power, so no impact on PPM calculations). Chain - AF: The Area Factor of a Chain attack depends entirely on the maximum number of targets it can hit. From what I know, there were no Chain attacks prior to i25 (powers described as Chains actually summon numerous pet attacks, resulting in a chain visual effect, but those summoned pets use the Sphere - AF for PPM calculations). Now that we are in i25+, it seems this feature is starting to be implemented. As of this date (14 Aug 2019), only Refractor Beam (Sentinel, Beam Rifle) and Rehabilitating Circuit (Sentinel, Electric Mastery) might (MIGHT!) be tagged with the kEffectArea_Chain that would use the Chain - AF. Also, on Beta, there is mention that among the Dominator changes, Trick Shot (Martial Assault) "...is now a proper chain attack, hits up to 10 targets". This suggest its mechanics may be tweaked to a kEffectArea_Chain. Now, if you were getting excited by the prospects of utilizing Procs in Chain attacks - don't. It is a huge nerf. If Trick Shot does in fact become a Chain Attack with a maximum of 10 targets, its AreaMod would be 6.625. That's equivalent to a Sphere attack with a 50 (FIFTY!) foot radius. The dev team will seriously need to tweak the Chain - AF formula for it to become viable for Proc usage. Frequently Asked Questions: 1) How much enhanced recharge can I put into a click-power and still achieve the maximum 90% Proc probability? If the Proc has a greater than 90% probability to Proc without enhancement, you can calculate the maximum allowed enhanced recharge as follows: For those interested, here is the derivation: 2) What is the impact of adding just a little bit of recharge enhancement into my click-power? A lot, actually. The formula shows this already, but MRT will decay rapidly with just a little added recharge enhancement, then will slow its decay rate as it approaches its CastTime limit. Since there are an infinite number of combinations for BaseRecharge and CastTime, I will only do a few examples to demonstrate this point. In the below examples I will assume a 3.5 PPM proc (since it’s the most common), and I will look at Base/Cast pairings of: 10s/1s, 10s/2s, 4s/1s, 20s/2s. You'll notice the general trend is the same throughout. Figures: In the first 3 figures I wanted to highlight the first 20% drop off then the next 20% drop off. In each case you hit the 80% mark very quickly (~30% enhancement), but the 60% mark is not hit until much later (approximately triple the 80% mark’s enhancement value). So basically, the lesson here is to either go all in on not adding enhanced recharge, or put as much recharge as you want knowing that the drop off in Proc probability will have diminishing returns (the same could be said of the power’s cool down, so perhaps it’s a wash). In Figure 4, I wanted to show that if you are over the maximum probability (90%) you should go ahead and add enhanced recharge up to that limit (in this case, 48% enhanced recharge still kept the 90% Proc probability). Lastly, please understand what these graphs are speaking to. It is merely suggesting the impact of your Proc probability whenever that power is clicked. It does not speak to your actual in game performance. Ultimately*, the goal is to maximize Proc rate (Procs per minute) which is a function of Proc probability (Procs per activation, which these figures show and requires recharge to be minimized) and Proc opportunity rate (activations per minute, which requires recharge to be maximize). There is a balance between Proc probability and opportunity rate that can be calculated using simple calculus, the parameters of the powers and your attack chain; however that is a unique calculation for every scenario and is outside the scope of this guide. *Ok, so maximizing Proc rate is not really THE ultimate goal…but you get the point. Update History: Original Post (27 June 2019, kept for Historical Purposes) Still Not a Guide Writer!
In the recent discussions about "rebalancing", bug fixing and nerfing the PPM proc system, /Time, /Darkness Affinity, Powerboosted Def, etc. we've been mostly been caught up on discussing the relative merits, details and balance of those powers. Before embarking on major game changing overhauls I think it would be wise for us to take a step back, and think about the big picture impact and our priorities. We've been having a great time for the roughly year the Homecoming servers have been public....with powers and sets working largely as they do now. There's no immediate need to make major game changes and we'd do well to take a breath and think more carefully about what we as community want and how those changes are likely to impact excitement and enjoyment of the game. I would have liked more poll questions than the allowed two, but hopefully this poll will shed some light on players big picture priorities and this thread can be a discussion to fill in the nuances and gaps left out in the poll. Poll was edited to add "content/story arcs" in question #1 and "bug fixes" in #2. Only 4 people had taken the poll when the edit was made so hopefully shouldn't disrupt the results as much the better nuances will improve quality of answers...
Most of the "Proc Monster" discussion seems to center on damage. I got interested in what other nifty things could be done in the new PPM world.... Powers that used to be questionably bad because of long cooldowns are now procilicous. And although it's technically percent based so not a PPM, having seen what Bonfire with 'Overwhelming Force: Chance KD' can do you, get the idea of what amazing non-damage impacts procs can potentially have... Leviathan Mastery FTW So what makes MM Leviathan special? Mainly a single power. All the MM Epic Hold's have a long 32s cooldown making them great for procing. But Knockout Blow from Leviathan Mastery stands out, in that it already does massive damage, plus it accepts Hold, Melee and KB IO sets, and has a massive 40s cooldown. If that wasn't enough it's also a Mag3 hold and has a base accuracy of 90 rather than the standard 75, so we can skimp on accuracy for more procs! And if all that wasn't enough Leviathan gets another hold power, plus an aoe cone Immobilize and decent resistance shield. How to exploit? What are the gimmicks I promised? Even with some recharge from Alpha or IO enhancements both 'ForceFeedback: Chance for 5s 100% Rech buff' and 'Super Entomb: Chance for +Absorb' can still have capped 90% chance to proc. With a moderately high global recharge and Hasten build that means you can reliably have both of those buffs up again every 10 - 15s. ForceFeedback --- 'Knockout Blow' being single target with a long 40s cooldown, means that a ForceFeedback proc even with it's low PPM of 2 still is above the 90% proc chance as long enhancement Recharge stays below 61% enhancement. All the other procs we'd care about have 2 or better PPM, so that magic 61.5% rech threshold will also give us capped 90% proc chance for all the other procs. This means you can slot for recharge, taking Alpha Spiritual or Agility and still have capped proc chances! That let's you easily get KO Blow cooldown into the 10s to 13s range, meaning you can reliably have FF's 100% buff up around 1/3 to 1/2 of the time if you're judicious about using KO whenever it's up in combat, so roughly equivalent to 33% to 50% global Recharge while holding enemies and doing very respectable damage. In my testing this let me make other long cooldown powers like Nature's Overgrowth Perma. Super Entomb: Chance for +Absorb --- Why care about this? Well how would you like an Absorb shield you can refresh roughly every 10s? (Taking into account the Rech buff from ForceFeedback...) This is my favorite gimmick, but it's arguably better in the Epic Range holds since you can more easily fire at will that way... In my use it's just a little under 150 HP Absorb on my MM. That may not seem like much, but I'm at 75% S/L res. Resistance reduces incoming damage before it hits the Absorb. So that means with that paltry 150 Absorb my MM can take an extra 600HP of S/L damage roughly every 10s or so. Not bad for a character that only has a 842 HP. If you can get off even 4 procs a minute it could protect you from 2400 HP of S/L damage. Another important is that's damage won't be transferred to pets in BodyGuard mode for instance when we all take a massive pboe hit.... Absorb is more effective when you have high Resistance, so will be best with 2ndaries like Resistance buffs like /Nature, /Thermal and Sonic can best leverage this. And it just so happens that Leviathan includes a decent shield 'Shark Skin' with base Resistance of 27.5% S/L/ and Cold. Combined with a 2ndary like /Nature this makes it easy to get to 75% cap on S/L even without Tough. Since Leviathan has two Holds it will also do well with 2ndaries like /Time, /Nature and /Radiation letting you stack multiple Holds. KO Blow Gimmick slotting: Relying on the 90% capped proc chances by keeping our Recharge enhancement at or below 61% for this power. ForceFeedback The usuals: 1 x Purple 'Enbreakable Constraint' [If you're poor non-purples will also have 90% proc chance it's just that they do less damage. But for instance you have other lower cooldown holds powers like Time Stop that you want to proc out you might be better off putting the purple there where the high PPM is actually needed to stay at proc cap. ...and 1 x Purple Hecatomb dmg But KO does a whopping (for MM) base damage of 109, so we also want to slot for Dmg. Optimal will be a two +5 boost Hecatomb's. 1 x Acc/Dmg/Rech and 1 x Dmg get you 94% Dmg 33% Rech. But I like 2 x Basilisk for Def bonus with 1 x Hecatomb Dmg which still gets you 66% Dmg. [2nd Hecacomb from choices above....] *Utility proc or another dmg proc seasoned to your build tastes. Interesting Utility options: Super Entomb: Chance for +Absorb is the main gimmick but I actually recommend taking ranged Spirit Shark too and putting Entomb in that. It's much easier to spam a ranged power, letting you more reliably keeping your Absorb up. Also, Spirit Shark has a lower 32s cooldown, but since Entomb is 3 PPM you can still easily keep it 90% proc chance cap... Mag5 Hold --- How about boosting the Mag3 hold up to Mag5 so you can instant hold Bosses? Superior Blistering Cold proc would let you do that but it's expensive and you don't need the high 4 PPM rate. Lockdown chance for hold's 2.5 PPM rate means you can reach 106% Recharge while still being at 90% cap Chance for -Res --- ?? Is this a bug. KO Blow accepts Targeted aoe sets?? Hmm how about 90% chance of procing an Annihilation chance for -Res? +Def bonuses --- We're often chasing Defense bonuses so my favorite slotting is actually 2 x Basiliks's and 1 x Hecatomb Dmg. That gets you 2.5% E/N, 1.25% Range Def and 66% Dmg and you can tune the Rech you get to keep it below 61% when combining with 45% from Alpha Spiritual.... Unless you have some other outside buffs you'll need some Accuracy anyway, so the Basilisks serve a purpose and also extend the hold mezz time. Other Leviathan Powers: Spirit Shark --- Single target mag3 Hold that does damage, so takes Ranged Damage and Hold Procs. Procs of interest: As mentioned previously, if you can fit it your build along with KO Blow, then this where I actually recommend putting Entomb here. At 3 PPM we can go as high as 98% Recharge while still keeping our 90% proc chance. And since this is 32s coldown power it will be up more often... Mag5 Hold -- Again adding a hold proc let's you reliable stack enough Mag hold to instant hold bosses. But don't use Lockdown as it's just a 2.5 PPM. This power takes Ranged Dmg sets and Devastation's Hold proc is a 3 PPM like Entomb. That small .5 PPM difference means Lockdown has to stay below 62% Rech to keep 90% Proc rate, whereas Devastation like Entomb can go to 98%.... Dmg procs -- Ideally the Purple Apocalypse Ranged Dmg proc. Not because we need the higher PPM rate, but because it does more Dmg... Honorable mention again with 2 x Baslisk Gaze, for the +Def set bonus and we do probably want some Accuracy and Recharge. School of Sharks: Nothing unique to see here that other Epics Immobs don't also have. The procs of interest will all be 3.5 PPM with the exception of Annihilation -Res which is 3 PPM. This means given the aoe cone and lower 20s cooldown, any recharge will greatly reduce or PPM chances in this power. For optimal procing you should go w/ no Alpha bonus and as close to zero IO Rech as possible. Procs of interest: Annihilation: chance for -Res (3 PPM) --- even with zero rech you'll still only have a ~54% chance of procing. ~45% chance to proc at 23.1875% enhancement Rech. And when you reach ED 96% Rech that goes further down to a 30.4%. Superior Frozen Blast: Chance for Immob --- This stacks ontop of the powers own Mag3 Immobilize letting you potentially mezz bosses and more easily hold AVs. While IO is 3.5 PPM which will help a bit, unfortunately it has a 23.1875% Rech Enhancement....so works against our proc plans. This will force you to 23.1875% Rech giving a proc chance of is ~52%, and worth yet also decreasing the proc chance other procs you want to use in School of Sharks. With Alpha Spiritual's 45% Rech tier that would total 68.1875% rech for a ~39.7% chance of procing. After the These might not seem that great, but for comparison remember that Controllers only get a 20% to add a +1 Mag to their powers. And since their powers are low cooldown that won't be able to use procs efficiently. Gravitational Anchor: Chance for Hold --- /Time and /Nature have chance for aoe Hold powers that accept the Lockdown chance for hold proc. If we add another aoe Chance for hold, we start to have decent odds of holding things. Gravitational is a 3.5 PPM, so the same numbers as Frozen Blast above, except if you opt to skip Frozen Blast, then you can actually be a zero recharge. Zero Rech means this a ~63% chance to proc a +2Mag Hold on targets in your Aoe cone. Debilitation Action: Chance for Stun --- It's only 3 PPM and it won't help us with Leviathan powers, but if you have other sources of Stun it might be better. Also it's dirt cheap. PPM chances will the same as Annihilation listed above. Dmg procs. Positron's, Javalin Volley, Trap of the Hunter all standard 3.5 PPM so same chances as Frozen Blast / Gravitational.... Dmg/Range or Pure Range --- This is cone power. Extending the range makes the cone's radius much wider at the end, but importantly doesn't reduce your PPM chances. You get a lot more mileage out of these powers when enhance for range because you can more easily target all enemies at once... (But sadly ranged cones have a target cap of 10 enemies....so there's only so much you can do with cone width...) Shark Skin --- Nothing much to say here. It's just like any of Epic Res Shields, but part of Res is for Cold which probab ly isn't as useful as Mu's Energy or Soul Mastery's Negative and Toxic. But I'm not here for the shield. The main point is that you want this power and you want it well slotted so you can best take advantage of the Absorb from Entomb. Bile Spray --- I'd say skip this. This power only takes Targeted Aoe sets so the proc options are limited. For proc builds you want to fully proc out powers for maximum benefit. Meaning you'll need all the 35+ slots you can spare for Knockout Blow and Spirit Shark etc..